SCSA® Test FAQ's

The male reproductive system consists of organs and structures responsible for producing, storing, and delivering sperm. Key components include the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, and the penis.

The testes are the male gonads responsible for producing sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone

Sperm production, or spermatogenesis, occurs in the testes. It’s a continuous process that results in the formation of mature sperm cells from germ cells.

The epididymis is a coiled tube located on the back of the testes, where sperm mature and gain the ability to move and fertilize an egg.
Sperm travel from the epididymis through the vas deferens, a muscular tube, during ejaculation. They mix with seminal fluid produced by the prostate and other glands before being expelled through the urethra.
Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection. It can have Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection. It can have various causes, both physical and psychological. Treatment options include medications, therapy, lifestyle changes, or medical devices.causes, both physical and psychological. Treatment options include medications, therapy, lifestyle changes, or medical devices.
Yes, factors like smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle can negatively impact male fertility and sexual health.
Most cases of male infertility can be treated. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies like IVF.
A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization by cutting or blocking the vas deferens to prevent sperm from reaching the semenal fluid. It can be reversed through vasovasostomy or vasoepididymostomy procedures, but success rates vary.
Prioritize a balanced diet, regular exercise, safe practices, and regular check-ups for optimal reproductive health.

The SCSA®, or Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay, is a test for male infertility. It quickly and accurately identifies men who are less likely to achieve a full term pregnancy naturally or with ART. It does this by determining the percentage of sperm with high levels of DNA fragmentation, i.e. the DNA Fragmentation Index (% DFI) as well as the percent of sperm with abnormal proteins (%HDS) and morphology that may inhibit fertilization.

The test is based on well-established research and methods. Developed over the course of more than 20 years, the SCSA® has been the subject of more than 125 articles published in peer-reviewed journals and periodicals.

Once we receive the samples for analysis, we assure that the patient and physician will have the results within 7 days.

No, you could contact Andrology Center directly to order the test.

Contact Andrology Center to find out about sending samples to the test center.

Please contact the Andrology Center for the cost of the test.

No, not at all, like other routine semen analysis tests, a semen sample is collected from the patient and then processed and the results generated as a report for the patient and physician.

No, this SCSA® test is a diagnostic test to determine the level of sperm DNA fragmentation, which is a major cause of failed pregnancies.

No, there is no limit to the number of times you can have the SCSA®test done. Patients are advised to retest after making certain lifestyle changes or completing prescribed medication.

Semen from an ejaculation after 2-3 days abstinence is collected, transferred into tubes and frozen to be transported to the nearest diagnostic centre.

Andrology Center is the only centre licensed to conduct the SCSA® test in India.

The SCSA® clinical report lists three statistical categories of fertility potential. These were derived from a comprehensive study of male fertility potential without medical interventions and have held true in additional studies.

  • Excellent to Good fertility potential ~<15% DFI
  • Good to Fair fertility potential ~ 15-25.0% DFI
  • Fair to Poor fertility potential ~ >25% DFI

Current data show the probability of a successful pregnancy is significantly reduced when the percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA is >25%. Even so, a DFI25% DFI, he is placed into a statistical group of men that have been shown in clinical studies to take a longer time for natural pregnancy, more IVF cycles, increased rate of spontaneous abortions or no pregnancy.

Couples with unknown causes of infertility, those that have had failed cycles of IUI/IVF/ICSI, older men, men exposed to environmental or work place pollution or radiation.


Many trying to conceive couples who look towards various fertility treatments could end up going through a number of rounds of time consuming treatments. Not only is it a waste of precious time, it is also a financial as well as an emotional burden, with unsuccessful outcomes. A simple SCSA® test will help in identifying the most suitable fertility treatment option.

The SCSA® test is considered the GOLD STANDARD for Sperm DNA analysis. Over the past 20 years, there has been extensive research on more than 100,000 sperm samples from fertility trials of animals and humans. Due to such extensive research the SCSA® test has the most published data of all comparative tests. There are other tests such as TUNEL, COMET and SCD which test for Sperm DNA fragmentation however they give far less reliable clinical data. The SCSA® test unlike most tests that use only a microscope to analyse a very small number of sperm cells, is able to analyse thousands of sperm cells thus giving a more accurate representation of the sperm sample.

Although less likely, sperm with normal shape and motility may have high levels of DNA fragmentation. Therefore, the SCSA® identifies male infertility that may not be identified by any conventional semen analysis.

Currently, the routine semen analysis includes measuring sperm count, motility and morphology only. None of these methods report on the actual level of DNA fragmentation in the sperm which is known to be a major cause of unsuccessful pregnancies.

The 23 chromosomes in the sperm head are made up of chromatin, which consists of DNA and proteins. In addition to DFI, the SCSA® test uniquely identifies a fraction of sperm with High DNA Stainability (HDS). HDS sperm are considered to be immature with unprocessed nuclear proteins and/or poorly condensed chromatin. Current data indicate that semen samples with a high percentage of HDS sperm (>15%) may have lower fertilization rates with conventional IVF (but not with ICSI).

No, SCSA® test results may be inconclusive for men with a very low sperm count (<500,000/ml to 750,000/ml) and/or a high level of seminal debris. Current or prior semen analysis will show sperm density and the presence of seminal debris. Consider these factors before ordering the SCSA® test. If the sperm density is <500,000/ml we will measure the sample, but the patient will still be responsible for the charges if the results are unclear.

Some fertility specialists will recommend intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), because the single sperm can be injected into the egg for fertilization. Other fertility doctors will attempt to avoid ICSI and try to decrease sperm DNA fragmentation to a level that is compatible with natural fertility.

    • Some recommendations to reduce sperm fragmentation and boost male fertility include:


  • Keep the testes cool — no hot tubs or long hot baths, and wear boxer shorts
  • Stop smoking.
  • Eat a diet rich in antioxidants because oxidative stress is the primary culprit for breaking DNA.
  • Avoid some medications such as cortisone and SSRIs.
  • Get examined for urogenital infections.
  • Eat a healthy diet full of colorful fruits and vegetables.

Ask your doctor about supplementary vitamins and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, co-enzyme Q-10 and supplements containing carnitine.

There are a number of potential causes of sperm DNA fragmentation. It may be the result of many factors including, but not limited to oxidative stress, elevated testicular temperature, high fever, smoking, diet, drug use, exposure to pesticides and chemicals, exposure to radiation and chemotherapy, age and prescription medicines including antidepressants.

High DNA Stainability or HDS sperm are considered to be immature with unprocessed nuclear proteins and/or poorly condensed chromatin. Current data indicate that semen samples with a high percentage of HDS sperm (>15%) may have lower fertilization rates with conventional IVF (but not with ICSI).

No, a high DFI value is only indicative of the current quality of the sperm DNA. With certain lifestyle changes and medications the quality of the sperm can be changed over time.

DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) is the measure of sperm DNA fragmentation and is an indicator of sperm quality. A DFI of less than 15% indicates excellent to good fertility, while a DFI between 15-25% indicates only good to fair fertility. DFI values greater than 25% indicate fair to poor fertility.

Sperm DNA fragmentation is higher in infertile men compared to fertile men. The genetic material within the sperm is tightly packaged, but susceptible to damage and breaks by various means. The structure of the DNA could be imagined as a ladder made up of side rails and rungs. If there is a break in either the rungs or the side rails, the ladder is unsteady and cannot function properly. Such breaks in the DNA of the sperm is referred to as Sperm DNA Fragmentation and can lead to impaired sperm function resulting in unsuccessful pregnancies.

The SCSA® test measures the levels of Sperm DNA fragmentation. It is the most robust test to date for measuring sperm DNA fragmentation.


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